Robert B. Heimann* and Hans D. Lehmann Pages 2 - 19 ( 18 )
Background: Corrosion control of magnesium for biomedical applications can be achieved by two means: deposition of protective coatings that isolate the surface from aggressive human body environment, and alloying the base metal with biocompatible elements that stabilize the surface against deterioration.Objective: This contribution reviews recent research towards efficient corrosion protection of magnesium and its alloys that are being used predominantly in osteosynthetic musculoskeletal fixation devices and cardiovascular stents. Relevant patents granted or applied for between 2010 and the present are being considered, reviewed, and evaluated. Method: The article concentrates on corrosion control coatings deposited on magnesium substrate surfaces by a plethora of surface-modifying methods. These methods include the provision of chemical conversion coatings as well as coatings with composition differing from that of the substrate material. Coating methods described herein include protocols of biomimetic syntheses, sol-gel deposition, galvanic anodization, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), electrophoretic deposition (EPD), pulsed laser deposition (PLD), cold gas dynamic spraying (CGDS), coincident microblasting (CoBlast) technique, and several others. A short paragraph deals with novel magnesium alloys the composition and microstructure of which contribute to corrosion protection of biomedical devices in vivo. Results: Evaluation of recent research reveals that despite many multi-pronged approaches towards developing Mg alloys for biomedical use, much needs to be done to overcome their performance deficiencies in demanding application such as osteosynthetic musculoskeletal fixation devices and cardiovascular stents. Conclusion: At present, much effort is being expended to develop Mg alloys for next generation biomaterials. While there are reasonable solutions for a few biomedical applications, ultimate future achievements may include the use of appropriately designed and engineered magnesium alloys for load-bearing isoelastic endoprosthetic implants.
Biomedical implants, coatings, corrosion, deposition methods, magnesium alloys, osteosynthetic fixation devices, stents.
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